(Summary) Hydrological Cycle and Hydrogeological Cycle


The hydrogeological cycle is a part of hydrology which studies the distribution and movement of groundwater in rocks and soil in the earth's crust. Water resources have an important role in life.

The water cycle has an important meaning to be able to provide water for various needs of living things, maintain a constant amount of water on the earth's surface, and play a role in water purification experience.

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The hydrological cycle is a continuous process of the water cycle from the beginning to the end. The water cycle begins with the evaporation of water into the atmosphere. The water will turn into gas and form clouds.

Cloud-shaped water will return to the earth again known as rain, either in the form of snow, ice, or water. After that the water will return to the earth, then the water will seep into the ground and then appear on the surface such as in a lake or river.

Understanding the Hydrological Cycle

Understanding the Hydrological Cycle

The hydrological cycle occurs in the aquatic environment. This cycle goes on continuously without stopping. The process of water from the atmosphere will fall to the earth in the form of rain and then will return to the atmosphere. This science will study the movement of water as a whole.

While the hydrosphere is the entire layer of water found on the earth's surface, either in the form of gas, liquid, or solid. Hydrology also studies about water quality such as suitability for consumption and also studies about water distribution systems on earth.

The existence of a hydrological cycle is not only useful for maintaining the availability of water, but is also able to maintain the intensity of rain, keep the weather and temperature on earth in order. This cycle plays an important role in forming a balanced ecosystem.

Types of Hydrological Cycle

Types of Hydrological Cycle

The hydrological cycle is divided into several types. Each type has a different process so that it is able to form the groundwater cycle. Here's the explanation.

1. Short Hydrological Cycle

In a short cycle, sea water will evaporate and then go through a condensation process and turn into fine water droplets or in the form of clouds. Then the rain will fall directly into the sea and will return repeatedly.

2. Medium Hydrological Cycle

The cyclical process is in progress, starting with seawater which evaporates and is carried by the wind to the other side land and through the process of condensation so that it turns into the beginning then falls as a forest in the area mainland.

Furthermore, the water will seep into the ground and then return to the sea through waterways or rivers.

3. Long Hydrological Cycle

The long cycle begins with seawater evaporating. When the condensation process occurs, the water will turn into clouds and then be carried away by the wind to other places higher on land then there is snow on ice in mountainous areas that tall.

Ice chunks will settle at the top of the mountain because its gravity slides to a lower place. Over time it will form a glacier then melt and flow through the river and back into the sea.

Read: Mainland Relief

Hydrological Cycle Part

The process of the hydrological cycle occurs in several parts. Each stage has a close relationship so that it can combine and create a good cycle.

The linkage between each part is twisted so that it will be done continuously. Check out the explanation as follows.

1. Evaporation


Evaporation that occurs in a body of water directly is called evaporation. This is the initial stage of the hydrologic cycle. All water will experience evaporation and turn into water vapor due to heating from the sun.

2. Transpiration


Evaporation also comes from the tissues of living things which is called transpiration. This process occurs in both animal and plant tissues. The water content in living things changes from a liquid to a gas.

The resulting water vapor will be confined to the atmosphere. However, the evaporation that occurs due to transpiration is less than evaporation.

3. Respiration


Evaporation of water from animals and plants. The water vapor formed is carried by the wind into the atmosphere.

4. Evapotranspiration


Evapotranspiration is a combination of transpiration and evaporation, so it can be said to be a total combination evaporation of water as a whole, both originating from living tissue and on the earth's surface or soil.

In the hydrological cycle, evapotranspiration greatly affects the amount of water vapor that rises to the Earth's atmosphere.

5. Condensation


The process of changing water vapor into small particles as a result of cooling. When it reaches a certain height, water vapor will turn into very small particles through the process of condensation.

The process of change of form occurs due to the influence of air. The small particles that are formed will approach each other and unite to form clouds.

6. precipitation


Clouds that have undergone the advection process will then experience precipitation or melting. At this stage it will rain. The form of precipitation that falls to the earth includes snowfall, hail, or rain water.

7. Infiltration


Not all of the water that has fallen to the earth due to the precipitation process will flow to the surface. Some will move into the soil pores, seep or seep, and accumulates into groundwater.

8. Percolation


Percolation is the process of absorbing water to a certain depth so that it looks for groundwater or also known as groundwater.

9. Run Off

Run Off

Run off is the process of moving water from a high place to a low place and occurs on the earth's surface. Movement generally occurs through channels such as rivers, lakes, sewers, to the sea.

Read: Lithosphere Material

Elements in Hydrology


Elements in Hydrology

There are several elements in hydrology that need to be understood. Some of these elements can affect the hydrological circulation and have different roles. Check out the information below.

1. Interception Canopy

Precipitation is prevented by plant foliage and eventually evaporates back into the atmosphere rather than falling to the ground.

2. precipitation

Precipitation is water vapor that falls to the earth's surface. Most precipitation occurs as rain, but it can also occur as hail, graupel, and dripping fog.

3. runoff

Runoff is the flow of water that moves over the earth's surface. Includes surface runoff as well as channel runoff.

This happens because when it flows, water can seep into the ground, evaporate into the air, be stored in lakes, or be extracted for various human needs.

4. Melting Snow

Runoff formed from melted snow.

5. Evaporation

The change of water from a liquid to a gas occurs as it moves from the ground into the atmosphere. The main source of energy in the evaporation process is solar radiation.

6. Subsurface Current

Underground watercourses include aquifer and vadose zones. Surface water can return to the surface water is absorbed into the ocean. Water returns to the ground at an elevation lower than its initial location and under the pressure of gravity.

Soil tends to move slowly and fill back so that it can remain in the aquifer for thousands of years.

7. Transpiration

The process of releasing water vapor from plants and soil into the air. Water vapor is an invisible gas.

Main Elements in the Hydrological Cycle

Main Elements in the Hydrological Cycle

There are several main elements that play a very important role in the hydrological cycle. Check out the description as follows.

1. Cloud

Clouds are formed from a collection of several drops of water or ice in large quantities and are part of the condensation core.

2. Wind

Wind is able to determine a temperature strength of water vapor and air conditions in a place.

3. Evaporation

The event that occurs due to the change of water into steam and moves from the ground surface and water surface to the air is called evaporation.

4. Groundwater

Water that moves in soil that has several layers of sandstone is called an aquifer. While groundwater that moves in rock cracks is called crevice water.

5. Water Body

The lowest part of the earth's surface to hold water. The body of water consists of several kinds such as reservoirs, lakes, rivers, and so on.

6. Evapotranspiration

Is a combined part of the results of evaporation through plants and water bodies.

Read: Terracing


The hydrogeological cycle, also known as the groundwater cycle, is closely related to the meteoric water cycle. This cycle can run due to the heat and radiation from the sun. Both cycles are part of the hydrological cycle on the earth's surface.



Water that seeps into the ground will form a subsurface flow system. Each area may have a different water flow system depending on the landscape and lithology.

The water cycle will start from high areas first and then go to low areas to get to the sea. Measurement of water flow needs to be carried out at the excavated source to be able to determine the amount of water pressure.

The measurement results can describe how the condition of groundwater in an area. The ground water surface morphology map can also be used as material for planning the development of a safe mining area.

The Relationship between Groundwater and the Hydrological Cycle

The Relationship between Groundwater and the Hydrological Cycle

In the hydrological cycle, groundwater has a very close role. The process of water circulation will run continuously and the soil becomes one of the distribution media. In addition, solar heat is also one of the main factors in the hydrological process.

Later the water will fall to the surface as rain, fog, or drizzle. After touching the ground, the water will move on differently, either through evaporation, surface water, or infiltration. In this infiltration process, groundwater plays an important role.

Infiltration Function

Infiltration Function

When rainwater falls to the surface, some of it will be absorbed by the soil and enter the pores. This process is called infiltration. While the rest will fill the hollow surface. Check out some of the infiltration functions as follows.

1. Ecosystem Stability

An understanding of infiltration can play a role in the stability of the surrounding ecosystem because it also has a role in the water cycle and biogeochemical cycle.

Meanwhile, as it is known that the water cycle plays a major role in the life chain fund to meet the basic needs of living things.

2. Groundwater Research

Infiltration is one of the methods used to replenish groundwater in the earth's surface. This is important to understand in order to get accurate research results. This is very important to be able to know the dynamics of groundwater in an area.

3. Water Conservation Studies

An understanding of infiltration in an area is important for water conservation research. This can be important to determine which areas are good for water catchment areas and which areas should be developed as built-up areas.

4. Preventing Flood Runoff

Infiltration will be applied when planning the water catchment area development process. The more water catchment areas, of course, it can reduce the potential for flooding caused by rain runoff.

The more efficient the water catchment area, the lower the potential for flooding. Infiltration is an important aspect in considering disaster mitigation planning and disaster response actions.

Read: Definition of biome

Factors Affecting Infiltration

Factors Affecting Infiltration

The infiltration process is a complex pathway that is influenced by several factors. However, one of the most decisive factors is soil permeability. The higher the permeability of the soil, the more water that can enter the soil.

So the higher the permeability, the higher the infiltration rate. Here are some factors that affect infiltration.

  • Soil moisture.
  • Organic elements found in the soil.
  • Soil texture and structure.
  • ground cover.
  • Washing of fine particles can cause the pores of the soil surface to be clogged thereby reducing the inflation rate.
  • Activities of living things.
  • The slope of the soil can affect the rate of infiltration.
  • Type and depth of litter.
  • Classification of land such as contour plowing, terracing, and others.

Understanding Hydrogeology

Understanding Hydrogeology

Hydrogeology is a branch of geology that studies the characteristics and presence of groundwater and its relationships and interactions with rocks. The interactions that occur can be chemical, physical, or a combination of both.

In terms of hydraulics, the movement in the soil is known as hydraulics in a porous medium because groundwater flows between the soil grains which also become the medium. The physical characteristics of groundwater can be seen from its movement and flow patterns.

Soil flow patterns can be influenced by rock type, rock composition, and rock slope. While the chemical characteristics can be seen from the quality of the water, it will be influenced by the compounds contained in it. Groundwater and rocks have an influence on each other.

Knowledge of the hydrogeological cycle has an important role for humans because it can have the following functions.

  • As an aspect of natural resources that can be used for various needs.
  • Important aspects of geology.
  • Part of the hydrology in the soil that can affect the balance of the global cycle.

Difference between Hydrogeology and Hydrology

Difference between Hydrogeology and Hydrology

In simple terms, hydrology studies water both on the earth's surface and under the earth's surface as a whole. The water cycle is at the core of hydrology. While hydrogeology is more focused on the movement of groundwater, which occurs below the surface.

Hydrogeology is part of hydrology so that the water cycle is balanced. So that hydrology can be said to have a closed cycle or also known as a complete cycle.

In contrast to hydrogeology, which has an open hydrological cycle because the input and output of water movement below the surface completes the explanation of the water cycle or hydrology.

Studying the hydrogeological cycle can help regulate the water supply to a residential area. By utilizing knowledge of the water cycle, prevention of water pollution can be carried out more optimally.





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