Synecdoche Figure: Pars Pro Toto & Totem to Parte (+Example)




The figure of speech itself has many varieties and types, one of the figures of speech that we will discuss on this occasion is the synecdoche figure of speech.

Based on the narrative of Aminuddin (1995), language style or figure of speech is a technique and form of language style someone in presenting ideas according to the ideas and norms used as the characteristics of the author alone.

So we can see that this language style is seen as jewelry by Javanese tradition so that a work can look more beautiful.

But along with the times, figure of speech is not only considered to be something beautiful.

However, it also provides awareness that the interesting thing about using language in communication is the aspect of linguistic form that is currently more needed.

list of contents

Definition of Synecdoche

brainly synecdoche figure of speech


1. Generally

Synecdoche is a figurative language that mentions an important part of an object or thing for the thing or thing itself.

2. According to experts

a. Quoted from Poetry Study (1990) by Rachmad Djoko Pradopo

Synecdoche is a figurative language by way of mentioning the special features of an object to designate that thing or thing, or vice versa.

b. Keraf (2010, p. 142)

Synecdoche is a figurative language that uses a part of something to represent the whole (pas pro toto) or on the contrary use the whole to express a part (totum pro party).


c. Nurgiyantoro (2017, p. 300)

Synecdoche is a style of language in which the name of the part is substituted for the name of the whole (pars pro toto) or vice versa (totum pro parte).

From the opinion of the experts above, we can conclude that synecdoche is a style of language that uses a name in part for the whole or vice versa.

Types of Synecdoche figurative language

synecdoche figure of speech, example

When viewed from the characteristics, the synecdoche figure of speech is divided into two types, namely Pars Pro Toto and Totem to Parte.

Here's a full explanation:

1. Synecdoche Pars Pro Toto

Pars Pro Toto is a figurative language that uses part of something to express the whole.

For example sentences:

The New Zealand government provides a monthly allowance of $200 per household during the pandemic.


The head is one part of the body, but in this sentence it refers to the whole.

2. Synecdoche Totem to Parte

Totem to Parte is a relationship pattern that states the whole to mention one part.

For example sentences:

Indonesia competed against Taiwan to win the Uber Cup.



The sentence mentions the name of a country even though it only refers to one or several people.

What actually competes is not all Indonesian citizens, but only one or two badminton players who compete.

Synecdoche Usage

figurative language synecdoche totem pro parte and examples

Synecdoche totum pro parte is generally used to make generalizations so that not only one or two parties are discussed.

For example sentences:

If one of the police buser teams has succeeded in catching criminals, then this success will not be successful only the team succeeded in achieving it, but also the success of the entire Polri agency.

Meanwhile, the pars pro toto synecdoche is used to create a sense of connection between the reader and the reader listeners on something conveyed through the ease and conciseness given of some things just.

The curiosity of the reader also plays a role in knowing what is meant in the content of the text.

Synecdoche Context

totem pro parte

Synecdoche figure of speech is indeed very contextual. Meaning, this figure of speech only applies to certain specific conditions.


An example is how the name of a country can advance to just a sports team in the context of the Olympics.

Pay close attention to the following examples:

The UK has won hundreds of medals at the 2016 Olympics.


The country of England in the sentence is a synecdoche totum pro parte, because the entire country of England represents its Olympic team.

Meanwhile, if "England" is discussed in a political context, then "England" represents the government of the country only, not for sports teams.

Read: Antithesis

Example of Synecdoche

Pars Pro Toto

To make it easier for you to understand the description above, here we provide examples of sentences that use synecdoche figure of speech according to its type, including:

1. Synecdoche Pars Pro Toto

  • The professional chef's dishes are a treat for every mouth.
  • It has been five years since father set foot in grandfather's house.
  • I have a crush on the guy there.
  • The price of chicken pieces in the market rose to 33,000 rupiah per head.
  • Cigarette excise duty increases per stick starting from next year.

2. Synecdoche Totem to Parte

  • Palembang residents watch football inside the Wilis Stadium.
  • Medical personnel died while dealing with the pandemic.
  • The army had repelled the peasants during the agrarian conflict.
  • Men often maintain a patriarchal culture.
  • Dota games are very popular among teenagers.
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