Paragraph is a series of sentences that are interconnected and form a unified idea consisting of the main idea and explanatory sentences. According to the KBBI the definition of a paragraph is a chapter in an essay (usually it contains one main idea and the writing begins with a new line; paragraph. From these two understandings, it can be said that the paragraph is a part that must exist in an essay to form a complete idea.

Paragraph is an important element in a discourse. The elements of the discourse that will be formed are determined by several paragraphs that appear in the essay. According to the location of the main sentence or main idea, paragraphs are divided into three types, namely deductive, inductive and mixed paragraphs. In this discussion, we will describe the three type of paragraph type that.

Deductive Paragraph

Deductive is a type of paragraph that is developed with a deductive pattern. The pattern of deduction begins with the presentation of general things and then spreads specific things. Deductive paragraphs can be seen from the location of the main sentence at the beginning of the paragraph.

Some of the characteristics of deductive paragraphs that can be seen include:

  • Put the main idea at the beginning of the paragraph
  • The main idea consists of a general statement followed by a specific explanation

An example of a deductive paragraph:

  1. Phenomenon Traffic jams are common in several big cities in Indonesia Indonesia. This can be due to several reasons, including the volume of vehicles that are already high and exceed the target and road capacity. In addition, the level of awareness of residents who are less disciplined and there are still many officers who are not firm in taking action against road users violations which increasingly result in uncontrolled traffic.
  2. Internet is very useful for humans. With the freedom to access the internet network, we can easily find various information in any part of the world. Besides making it a medium information, the internet is also used as a communication tool for some people who use social applications media. Many things can be reached with just one click using internet services so that people are greatly helped by this convenience.
  3. The mother figure is very big role for a family. Most people would agree with this statement. We cannot complete and prepare all the necessities of life without his help. A family will be very dependent on the role of a mother. Starting from food, equipment, and household needs, mothers usually do it without complaining. Of course, this makes us more aware not to argue with all the mother's advice and appreciate it even better.
  4. Discipline has become a problem in the school environment lately. This happens because many students often come late. Moreover, these few days when the midterm exam was held, there were still some who were late. The issue was then brought up by the school committee which produced a policy regarding the penalty for running around the field if it was proven that he was more than ten minutes late.
  5. Accidents due to negligence are still common. Throughout 2016, 15 people have died due to work accidents, especially in factories in urban areas. The death toll did not only come from workers, but several civilians who lived in the factory environment were also victims. Many of these accidents were caused by short circuits in electricity because workers forgot to turn off the electricity when leaving the factory.

Inductive Paragraph

Inductive is a type of paragraph that is developed with an induction pattern, namely by explaining specific things and then being concluded with more general things. It can be said that an inductive paragraph is a paragraph where the main sentence is located at the end of the paragraph. The pattern of developing an induction paragraph can be done by generalization, cause and effect, causes, and analogy.

Some characteristics of inductive paragraphs:

  • Paragraphs begin with specific explanations
  • The specific explanation is then generalized into a conclusion at the end of the paragraph
  • The explanatory sentence that comes before the main sentence is in the form of facts, examples, special details or evidence that supports the statement at the end of the sentence
  • The pattern of generalization development is the pattern of developing sentences with specific statements that are very similar to the main sentence statements
  • The pattern of developing causality (cause and effect) is a development pattern that uses facts to confirm conclusions
  • The analogy development pattern is a development pattern that compares two things that have something in common.

Inductive paragraph example:

  • After the flood recede, the children who were successfully evacuated yesterday were taken to emergency medical services for examination. It turned out that the cases of illness suffered by the children who were victims of the banjir bandang were quite diverse. A total of 15 children had acute diarrhea, 2 children suffered from skin diseases, and 4 children were confirmed to have dengue fever. It can be said that the flash flood that hit Denpasar last week had a bad impact on the health of flood victims' children.

Note: The inductive paragraph above uses a generalization pattern

  • Indeed, the two twin brothers are very compact. Both Etti and Itta both work as doctors. From the age of ten, the two often participated in carnivals and always acted as doctors. With the efforts and support of their parents, both of them were able to study at the Faculty of Medicine, Airlangga University, Surabaya. In addition to the same nature, Etti and her sister Itta also chose to work at the same hospital. Brothers Itta and Etti do look like areca nut cut in half.

Note: The inductive paragraph above uses an analogy pattern

  • The shift of seasons as at this time is very vulnerable to natural disasters. Some time ago, for example, the news of floods that occurred in big cities was very concerning. The city according to its construction modern it becomes a favorite place for annual floods. This of course depends on the role of residents in urban areas who almost every day produce household waste. Floods that occur in urban areas certainly come from the blockage of water flow due to accumulated garbage.

Note: The inductive paragraph above uses a causal pattern

  1. Lung cancer is one of the diseases that threaten the safety of smokers. Both active smokers and passive smokers. This comes from the smoke produced from the smoking process which contains substance harmful chemicals such as tar and nicotine. Therefore, the recommendation to stop smoking must be driven by all levels of society.
  2. Diaz is very fond of drawing lessons. Every day after school he always vents his hobby on drawing paper while watching television. Some of the achievements of being a drawing champion are even obtained every year. All the teachers at his school believe that Diaz's work deserves to win. Therefore, the school did not hesitate to support Diaz every time he competed.
  3. From the first door of Soetopo's gallery, we couldn't stop enjoying the beautiful works of his hands. Our eyes were so impressed, the visitors were spoiled with many classy paintings by this Malang maestro. It can be seen from room to booth that some of the paintings have been conjured up in three dimensions. It makes our eyes more unblinking. Moreover, his work is in the form of faces of Indonesian national heroes. How beautiful and lucky Indonesia is to have an artist like Soetopo.
  4. A reliable painter must produce beautiful works, the painter creates his work on canvas by weaving communication together with his emotions so as to create imagination to be poured into his work. Imagination is embodied in the concepts and thoughts as well as the meaning that the painter wants to convey. That's where a painting seems to be talking to its audience. Therefore, imagination is very important for an artist.
  5. The government's policy of increasing fuel rates is considered not in favor of the small people. The majority of Indonesian people whose lives depend on fuel, such as drivers and traders, complain as a result of this policy. With the decrease in the policy of increasing the price of fuel, the price will increase ingredient the tree also crawled up. This is what the little people complain about who are getting more and more tormented. Therefore, several points in big cities in the last two days were stormed by demonstrators who wanted this policy to be abolished.

Mixed Paragraph

Mixed paragraphs are paragraphs that are preceded by expressing sentence main idea (main idea) at the beginning and end of the paragraph. Mixed paragraphs are developed using a deduction-induction pattern, namely a development pattern that describes the main sentence and is interspersed with it explanatory sentences, then a conclusion is drawn at the end of the paragraph which is also a supporting sentence for the main sentence. With word Another mixed paragraph is a paragraph that has two main sentences.

Some of the characteristics of mixed paragraphs include:

  • General-specific-specific-general pattern (conclusion)
  • The main sentence at the beginning of the paragraph is the opening
  • The main sentence at the end of the paragraph is a concluding form that emphasizes the main idea in the main sentence at the beginning
  • There is repetition of keywords at the beginning and end of paragraphs

Example of a Mixed Paragraph:

  1. In today's era, many types of sports are widely known, including running. Running provides great benefits for the body. One of the benefits of running is to keep the body's metabolism and blood circulation system running smoothly. In addition, running can be done without the need for complicated preparation like other sports. So it's not surprising that running is getting more and more popular.
  2. Indonesia is a country with abundant marine wealth. With an area separated by the sea, Indonesia actually has great natural and marine wealth and is known throughout the world. Had become the prima donna of marine tourism with the beauty of the Bunaken Marine Park, Indonesia still optimistic to protect nature and its cleanliness. The vast sea holds natural wealth and marine potential that can guarantee its inhabitants. Seeing this fact, it is not surprising that Indonesia is considered a rich country.
  3. Social media is now increasingly becoming a prima donna for publication lovers. Almost every second social media is a necessity for most Indonesian people who like to be online in front of the computer. This is used by some people to interact with their old friends or new friends. This sophistication has resulted in social media being loved by the people of Indonesia.
  4. Carrot farmers in the Pacet Mojokerto area are threatened with crop failure. This is because a week ago a rat pest hit this 7-hectare willayah. The unharvested carrots were forced to be saved by early harvesting. The price of carrots in the market has also fallen. This condition makes farmers stressed and reluctant to plant new seeds for carrots. Carrot harvest failure is certain to hit the Pacet area to some parts of Trawas.
  5. Most women really like flowers. Flowers can be a symbol of the tenderness of a woman's heart. That's what was mentioned in the rose lover literature seminar held at the Sasana art building Culture Singaraja last week. Several women who attended the seminar agreed with the opinion that flowers are a symbol of women. Therefore, it is not surprising that flower lovers are dominated by women.
  6. Living things in this world need to eat and drink to survive. Humans, animals and plants survive in different ways. All three need food intake that must be maintained every day for metabolic processes and development. Metabolic processes in the body are supported by the role of all food and drinks that enter the body of living things. So, both humans, animals, and plants both need food to live.
  7. Water is an absolute necessity for humans. Without water, you can imagine how human life will take place. Apart from drinking, some human daily activities cannot be separated from important role of water. Washing, bathing, and cleaning the house are some of the uses of water every day. Therefore, water is something that must be considered.
  8. Maintaining body hygiene is highly recommended, especially by washing hands after doing certain activities. Hands are very vulnerable to change temperature which can then become moist so that it becomes a breeding ground for bacteria. By washing your hands, especially before touching food, ninety percent of the bacteria will die and you won't get infected. This recommendation was also expressed by the Indonesian Doctors Association in a handwashing day seminar some time ago. So, hand washing is the first step to maintain cleanliness which is highly recommended.
  9. The rise of fraud under the guise of a lottery lately is very disturbing to residents. It started with two residents who became victims of fraud so that tens of millions disappeared from their hands. The East Java Police Chief also instructed his staff to hunt down the perpetrator, whose identity was known. Of course, the role of vigilance from potential victims is also something that must be done. Several residents who have not been victims were also asked for information related to this case. Some of them even claimed to have met a face that resembled the perpetrator's sketch. The residents' anxiety is even more pronounced when the perpetrator has not been caught and is still spreading lottery issues to other potential victims.

This is a discussion of deductive, inductive and mixed paragraphs that are commonly found in the structure of a discourse. May be useful !

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