Differences between Weather and Climate

click fraud protection

Weather and Climate Elements – Definition, Process, Classification, Change, Impact & Differences – For this discussion we will review about Weather and Climate which in this case includes elements, definitions, processes, classifications, changes, impacts and differences, to better understand and comprehend, see the review below.

Understanding Weather

Quick Readshow

Weather is the condition of the air at a time and in a narrow place/area. For example: the weather is sunny, lots of clouds, high wind pressure, hot or cool. Weather consists of all phenomena that occur in the atmosphere of the Earth or another planet. Weather is usually an activity of this phenomenon within several days. Weather averages over a longer period of time as climate. This aspect of the weather is further researched by climatologists for signs of climate change.

Weather and climate are expressed in terms of the physical elements of the atmosphere, which are hereinafter called weather elements or elements climate consisting of the receipt of solar radiation (flux density on a flat surface on the earth's surface) duration of solar radiation air temperature air humidity air pressure wind speed and direction cloud cover, precipitation (dew, rain, snow) evaporation/evapotranspiration.

instagram viewer

The value of weather elements moment by moment for 24 hours in a place will show a cyclical pattern called diurnal weather changes (00:00 to 24:00). The values ​​for each weather element can be averaged and produce the weather on that date.

Weather is recorded continuously at certain observation hours on a regular basis, producing a series of weather data which can then be processed statistically into climate data.

Also read articles that may be related: 5 Definition, Impact and Process of Acid Rain

Weather data consists of discontinue data because it easily returns to zero (0) and continue data because it does not easily drop to zero. Data on weather elements that are discontinuous include the receipt of solar radiation and the duration of exposure, precipitation (rainfall, dew and snow) and evaporation.

The presentation and analysis are in the form of accumulated values, while the graphic presentation is in the form of a histogram curve. Continuous weather data includes: temperature, humidity and air pressure and wind speed. The analysis and presentation are in the form of average numbers or instantaneous numbers, while the graphs are in the form of lines/curves.

Weather Occurrence Process

Weather and climate are two conditions that are almost the same but have different meanings, especially over time. Weather is an initial form that is connected with the interpretation and understanding of the instantaneous physical conditions of the air at a location and at a time, while climate is advanced conditions and is a collection of weather conditions which are then compiled and calculated in the form of average weather conditions over a certain period of time (Winarso, 2003).

According to Rafi'i (1995) Weather science or meteorology is the science that studies weather events within a limited period of time and space, while climate science or climatology is science which also studies weather phenomena, but these characteristics and symptoms have general characteristics over a wide period of time and in large areas in the earth's surface atmosphere.

Trewartha and Horn (1995) said that climate is an abstract concept, where climate is a composite of day to day weather conditions and atmospheric elements in a certain area over a certain period of time long. Climate is not just average weather, because no concept of climate is adequate without an appreciation of daily weather changes and seasonal weather changes as well as a succession of weather episodes caused by atmospheric disturbances that are always changing, even under study Regarding climate, emphasis is placed on average values, but deviations, variations and extreme conditions or values ​​also have meaning important.

Trenberth, Houghton and Filho (1995) in Hidayati (2001) defines climate change as changes in the climate that are influenced directly or indirectly by Human activities that change the composition of the atmosphere will increase the observed climate variability over a sufficient period long. According to Effendy (2001), one of the consequences of climate deviation is the El-Nino and La-Nina phenomena. The El-Nino phenomenon will cause a decrease in the amount of rainfall far below normal for several areas in Indonesia. The opposite condition occurs when the La-Nina phenomenon occurs.

The process of weather and climate is a combination of the same atmospheric variables called climate elements. These climate elements consist of solar radiation, air temperature, air humidity, clouds, precipitation, evaporation, air pressure and wind. These elements differ from time to time and from place to place due to the existence of climate controllers (Anon,? ).

According to Lakitan (2002), climate control or the dominant factors that determine climate differences between one region and another are (1) relative position. to the sun's orbit (latitudinal position), (2) the presence of oceans or water surfaces, (3) wind direction patterns, (4) the appearance of the earth's land surface, and (5) density and type vegetation.

Weather and climate arise after complex physical and dynamic processes occur in the earth's atmosphere. The complexity of physical and dynamic processes in the earth's atmosphere begins with the rotation of the planet earth around the sun and the rotation of the earth on its axis. The movement of the planet Earth causes the amount of solar energy received by the Earth to be uneven, so naturally there is an effort to equalize the energy which is in the form of an air circulation system, apart from that the sun's energy emitting also varies or fluctuates from time to time (Winarso, 2003).

The combination of these processes with climate elements and climate control factors delivers us to the fact that weather and climatic conditions vary in terms of amount, intensity and its distribution. Environmental exploitation causes environmental changes and an increase in the population of the earth which is directly related to the addition of global greenhouse gases will increase variations the. Situations like this accelerate climate change which results in climate deviations from normal conditions.

Also read articles that may be related: A Brief Process of Rain and its Explanation

According to Winarso (2003), based on studies and monitoring in the field of climate, the longest weather and climate cycle is 30 years and The shortest is 10 years where this condition can indicate standard conditions which are generally useful for determining climate conditions per decade. Climate deviations may occur, are occurring or have already occurred if we look beyond the current weather and climate conditions.

Weather and Climate Elements

The following are several elements of weather and climate, consisting of:

  1. Air temperature

Air temperature is measured with a thermometer, the paper containing the temperature record is called a thermogram. There are various types of thermometers that can be used to measure air temperature, namely mercury, maximum, minminum, maximum and minimum thermometers. Types of six belani, binetal, bourdan, and resistance thermometers, below is a maximum-minimum thermometer of the six belani type.

Air temperature measurements are carried out continuously for 24 hours to obtain the daily average temperature. It is used to determine the monthly temperature, the average monthly temperature is used to determine the annual temperature and the average monthly temperature is taken for one year and the average annual temperature is taken for several year.

  1. Air pressure

It is air that has mass so it can press on the earth's surface. A tool for measuring air pressure is called a barometer. The barometer was discovered by Torricelli in 1644, the result of the discovery of another air pressure measuring device, the barometer Anaroid, this barometer is easy to carry to other places and can also be used to measure the height of places above the water surface sea. The lines on a map that connect places that have the same air pressure are called Isobars.

  1. Wind

Is the flow of air from one place to another. Wind can occur if there are factors that cause the wind to have direction and speed. Usually to determine the direction of the wind, wind flags and wind bags are used. The direction of the wind flag always points in the direction the wind is coming, wind speed is measured with an anemometer and the resulting record is called an anemoram. The unit of wind speed is km per hour or knots (1 knot = 1.854 per hour).

  1. Humidity

There are 2 types, namely absolute humidity and relative humidity. Absolute humidity is the amount of water vapor contained in 1 cubic meter of air. While relative humidity is the ratio between the amount of water in the air and the volume and temperature, a tool to measure relative humidity is called a hygrometer.

Formula for calculating relative humidity:

  1. Rainfall

Is the amount of rainwater that falls to the ground surface, the amount of rainfall is measured with a rainfall measuring instrument (fluviometer) called an ombiometer. This ombiometer is installed in a place that is not protected by trees or buildings. There are several places on the surface of the earth that have the same rainfall, places that have the same frequent rainfall depicted on a map in the form of lines on a map that connect places that have the same rainfall are called isohyet.

  1. Cloud

Is a collection of water droplets or ice crystals that occur due to condensation of water vapor in the atmosphere, clouds occur because the air containing water vapor rises so that the temperature drops below the dew point, these clouds can be solid objects or gas.

Broadly speaking, clouds have three forms, namely:

  • Cirrus clouds or feather clouds are clouds that are thin like fibers or feathers. Very tall and usually consists of water crystals.
  • Stratus clouds or layered clouds are flat, almost shapeless clouds. Usually gray in color and cover the sky over a large area.
  • Cumulus clouds or lumpy clouds are thick clouds with vertical movement. At the top it is semi-circular (dome) or like a cabbage and at the bottom it is flat.

Also read articles that may be related: Understanding and process of rainbow formation according to scientists

Understanding Climate

Climate is the average weather condition over a relatively large area and over a relatively long time (decades), the science that studies it is meteorology and the science that studies climate is climatology.

Climate needs to be studied and made into science so that humans can adapt to the natural environment. For example, people in high latitudes wear thick clothing and eat foods that contain lots of fat. In contrast, people in low latitudes wear clothes that are thin and easily absorb sweat. They make houses with lots of windows so that air circulation can flow smoothly so that the hot air temperature can be reduced.

On Earth, no two places have exactly the same weather and climate characteristics. Both of them only have climate similarities, so they can be grouped into main climate zones.

Climate Classification

The following are several climate classifications, consisting of:

The climate of an area is determined by five main factors, namely latitude, main winds, land mass or continent, ocean currents, and topography. Based on these factors, climatologists classify the climate on Earth into several types, including the following.

1. Solar Climate

The Sun's climate classification is based on the latitude factor. Differences in latitude on the Earth's surface affect the amount of sunlight energy it encounters. This situation causes the air temperature in low latitude regions (the equator) to be hotter than in high latitude regions (the poles).

2. Climate According to Koppen

In 1900, Wladimir Koppen, a German climatologist classified the world's climate into five groups. The climate classification is based on rainfall and air temperature. Apart from that, it also considers vegetation and the distribution of soil types. The classification system is arranged using upper and lower case letters. Each group uses a single uppercase symbol. Meanwhile, the subgroup uses two letters, namely a combination of upper and lower case letters. Climate classification according to Koppen, namely the five climate groups types A, B, C, D, and E.

  • Type A Climate (Tropical Rainy Climate)

Type A climate areas have high rainfall, high evaporation (average 70 cm3/year), and average monthly air temperatures above 18° C. Annual precipitation is more than annual evaporation, there is no winter. Type A climate areas are grouped into three as follows.

  • The Af type climate has hot temperatures and high rainfall throughout the year. In areas with type A climates there are many rainforests. Examples: Sumatra, Kalimantan and Papua. Af type climate regions have the following characteristics:
  1. the forest is very dense and heterogeneous (a variety of plants);
  2. there are many climbing plants; as well as
  3. there are types of plants such as ferns, palms, and.
    • The Am type climate has hot temperatures, a rainy season and a dry season with clear boundaries between the rainy and dry seasons. Areas with type Am climates include West Java, Central Java, South Sulawesi and southern Papua. Type Am climate areas have the following characteristics:
  4. rainfall depends on the season;
  5. short and homogeneous plant type; as well as
  6. homogeneous forest that sheds its leaves when.
    • Aw type climate has hot air temperatures, a rainy season and a longer dry season compared to the Aw type climate. Aw is found in East Java, Madura, West Nusa Tenggara, East Nusa Tenggara, South Sulawesi, the Aru Islands and parts of Papua south. Type Aw climate areas have the following characteristics:
  7. savanna-shaped forest (savanna);
  8. types of grassland and shrub plants; And
  9. the tree is of various types

Also read articles that may be related: Climate – Definition, Characteristics, Elements, Components, Types and Impacts

  • Type B Climate (Dry Climate)

The characteristics of type B climate are high evaporation with low rainfall (average 25.5 mm/year) so that throughout the year evaporation is greater than rainfall. There is no water surplus. In areas with type B climates there are no permanent rivers. Type B climate areas are divided into type Bs (steppe climate) and type Bw (desert climate).

  • Type C Climate (Warm Temperate Climate)

Type C climate experiences four seasons, namely winter, spring, autumn and summer. The average air temperature of the coldest month is (–3)°C – (–8)°C. There is at least one month with an average air temperature of 10° C. Type C climate is divided into three, as follows.

  • Cw type climate, namely a moderately wet climate (mesothermal humid) with winter ones
  • Cs type climate, namely a moderately wet climate with hot summers
  • Type Cf climate, namely a moderately wet climate with rain throughout
  • Type D Climate (Cold Snow Climate)

Type D climate is a snow forest climate with an average air temperature in the coldest month < – 3° C and an average air temperature in the warmest month > 10° C. Type D climate is divided into two:

  • Df type climate, namely cold snow forest climate with all months
  • The region has a type Dw climate, namely a cold snow forest climate with cold winters
  • Type E Climate (Polar Climate)

Type E climate areas are characterized by not knowing summer, there is eternal snow and moss fields. The air temperature never exceeds 10° C. Type E climate regions are divided into type Et (tundra climate) and type Ef (polar climate with eternal snow). Type E climate is found in the Arctic and Antarctic regions.

3. Climate According to Schmidt–Ferguson

Schmidt–Ferguson classifies climates based on the average number of dry months and the average number of wet months. A month is called a dry month if there is less than 60 mm of rainfall in one month. It is called a wet month if the rainfall is more than 100 mm in one month.

The Schmidt and Ferguson climate is often called the Q model because it is based on the Q value. The Q value is the ratio of the average number of dry months to the average number of wet months. The Q value is formulated as follows:

Q=((Average dry month):(Average wet month)) x 100%

The Q value is determined from calculating the average of dry months and wet months over a certain period, for example 30 years.

4. Climate According to Oldeman

Determination of climate according to Oldeman uses the same basis as determination of climate according to Schmidt-Ferguson, namely the element of rainfall. Wet months and dry months are associated with agricultural activities in certain areas so that the climate classification is also called agro-climatic zones. For example, rainfall of 200 mm per month is considered sufficient to cultivate lowland rice.

Meanwhile, to cultivate secondary crops, the minimum amount of rainfall required is 100 mm per month. In addition, a 5 month rainy season is considered sufficient to cultivate lowland rice for one season. In this method, the basis for determining wet months, humid months and dry months is as follows.

  1. Wet month, if the rainfall is > 200
  2. A humid month, when the rainfall is 100–200
  3. Dry month, if the rainfall is <100

Also read articles that may be related: Atmospheric Layers

5. Climate According to Junghuhn

Junghuhn classified climate based on altitude and linked climate to the types of plants that grow and produce optimally according to the temperature in their habitat. Junghuhn classifies climates into four

  • 0-700 m, hot zone, examples- rubber, coffee, sugar cane, corn, coconut
  • 700-1500 m, temperate zone, examples- tea, quinine
  • 1500-2500 m, cool zone, example- pine
  • > 2500 m, cold zone, example- moss

Influence Weather And Climate Against Life

Climatology is a small part of Meteorology. When studying climatology, you first need to know the definitions of weather and climate. Weather is the condition of the atmosphere at a certain place and time.

So at different places and times the weather will be different. Climate is the course of weather conditions or the totality of weather phenomena in a particular area over a long period. The climate in a place is determined by a number of climate elements such as temperature, air humidity, rainfall, wind speed, duration of sunlight, and so on.

In fact, some of these climate elements are interactions between a number of climate factors, namely causes that determine climate patterns, such as latitude, wind direction, relief, soil type, and vegetation.

The influence of climate on life is very large, however, this does not mean that there is always a "cause and effect" relationship between climate and life. Humans cannot change the climate, all humans can do is influence the effects of the climate. For example, by creating a greenhouse, making artificial rain, and so on. There are three forms of climate influence on life:

  • The effect if the temperature remains the same, but the amount of rain changes
  • The effect if the temperature changes and the amount of rain is adequate
  • The influence of climate over time or season

The influence of this climate can unknowingly bring about climate anomalies and micro-disasters for life. During the transition season, the wind direction in the Indonesian Archipelago is unclear and there are no areas with clear differences in air pressure.

Therefore, the wind direction is always changing. Apart from that, due to differences in local heating, it is not uncommon for the wind to move "in circles" like This is the case with the movement of "cyclonic" winds or more familiarly known as "puting beliung" or winds “quail”. The occurrence of tornadoes or whirlwinds in the transition season can be explained as follows:

At a time when the temperature in the northern hemisphere is equal to the temperature in the southern hemisphere, the air pressure above it will not be much different. This incident will occur twice during the year. These seasons are called transition seasons in Indonesia. This transition season takes place approximately in March-April and October-November. This balance makes the wind movement, both in strength and direction, erratic. Because the temperature between the two hemispheres is equal, the air pressure is also equal and there is almost no difference. The only direction that exists for the movement of the wind is "up", hence the transition season It is also characterized by many incidents of "spinning winds" as a result of differences in air pressure local.

The following is a brief explanation of climate and its influence on life, as well as a case example Nowadays there are very striking seasonal changes and the appearance of "tornadoes" which are more or less detrimental man. Hopefully this little explanation can increase our knowledge in dealing with climate problems in life. High rainfall will have an impact on the abundance of water in many places. This abundance of water could cause flooding.

Also read articles that may be related: Global Warming Paper (Global Warming)

Even if it doesn't cause flooding, high rainfall will hamper human activities a little. That's just one of the influences of weather and climate on life. There are many other influences caused by the weather and climate in a place.

  1. House design

Weather and climate also influence soil type. The swampy type of land will make people build houses on stilts, as is often found in Sumatra, Kalimantan, Sulawesi and Papua. This house on stilts not only protects itself from flooding but also from wild animals that inhabit the swamps.

The large number of storms makes people in the Gunung Kidul area, Yogyakarta build houses with low roofs. The low roof of the house means that wind movement cannot blow away the roof of the house, which is partly made of coconut leaves.

  1. Natural resources

The influence of weather and climate on natural resources cannot be said to be small. There are several types of plants and animals that cannot live in Indonesia's tropical climate. Even if you force yourself to maintain or plant certain types of plants or animals, special treatment must be taken and the results may not necessarily be the same as the plants found in the area of ​​origin.

For example, date palm plants. Dates might grow, like the ones in Mekarsari Fruit Park, Jakarta. But special treatment of date palm plants must be carried out carefully. Good quality corn and wheat can grow abundantly in America and Europe. Cattle farms with excellent meat quality exist in New Zealand and Australia. It is quite difficult for Indonesia to compete with the quality of meat, let alone milk from these two countries.

  1. Disease

Malaria is closely related to countries with tropical climates and those that still have lots of forests. But there are types of diseases that are difficult to develop in areas where the air does not allow viruses, bacteria or fungi to develop. It is not surprising that in a tropical country with humid air like Indonesia, asthma and skin diseases are developing rapidly in this archipelagic country.

  1. Employment and Productivity

People in countries that have extreme weather and climate, such as Alaska, Iceland, live a different life from people in Indonesia. It is impossible for people in countries with extreme weather to farm.

  1. Physical form

Believe it or not, physical form is influenced by weather and climate. Pay attention to people who come from cold climates, their bodies are big and have a tall posture. A large body full of fat stores will be very useful for them to fight the bone-chilling cold. People in the mountainous regions of China and Japan tend to be short but stocky and very strong.

  1. Clothes

The Eskimos will not wear bikinis in broad daylight like those worn by many tourists in Bali and Hawaii. The Eskimos cover their bodies with thick clothes made from animal hair.

Also read articles that may be related: Hydrological Cycle (Water Cycle)

Climate change

Climate is defined as the average weather conditions over a large area over a very long time. Meanwhile, the definition of climate change is a change in the physical conditions of the earth's atmosphere, including temperature and rainfall distribution, which has a broad impact on various sectors of human life.

Indonesia has special characteristics, both in terms of position and existence, so it has specific climate characteristics. In Indonesia, there are three types of climate that influence the climate in Indonesia, namely seasonal climate (monsoon), tropical climate (hot climate), and marine climate. But now, the climate in Indonesia is becoming warmer. The climate has changed since the 20th century.

The average annual temperature has increased by about 0.3oC since 1900. Annual rainfall has fallen by 2 to 3 percent in Indonesia this century. Rainfall in several parts of Indonesia is strongly influenced by El-Nino events.

On the other hand, the IPCC also revealed that over the last 100 years (1906-2005) the average surface temperature of the earth has increased by around 0.74oC with greater warming on land compared to the ocean. The average rate of warming over the past 50 years is almost double that of the past 100 years.

One of the things that influences climate change is the Greenhouse Effect which is the result of absorption of energy by certain gases in the atmosphere and reradiating some of the heat to earth.

Without the natural greenhouse effect, the temperature on the earth's surface would be -18oC, not like the current temperature. Each greenhouse gas has a different global warming effect. Global warming is an increase in the average temperature of the atmosphere close to the earth's surface and the troposphere, which can contribute to changes in global climate patterns.

Climate change is something that is difficult to avoid and has an impact on various sectors of life. Indonesia is at risk of experiencing significant losses due to climate change. Because of its existence as an archipelagic country, Indonesia is very vulnerable to the impacts of climate change.

Longer droughts, more frequent extreme weather events, and high rainfall leading to the danger of major flooding; -all of which are examples of the impacts of climate change. The submergence of parts of the country's land, -as happened in Jakarta Bay-, has begun to occur. Likewise, Indonesia's rich diversity of biological species is also at great risk.

In turn, this will have detrimental effects on the agriculture, fisheries and forestry sectors, leading to threats to food availability and livelihoods.

Climate change, one of which is global warming, will also raise sea levels, thereby inundating productive coastal areas which are now used as agricultural land. For example, in the Karawang area, West Java, local rice supplies will experience a large reduction as a result of the flooding.

Also, losses from the fish and shrimp production sector in the same area can reach more than 7,000 tons. If this prediction comes true, thousands of farmers in the area will have to look for other sources of livelihood.

Not only that, climate change will also increase the negative impacts of disease outbreaks that are transmitted through water or other vectors such as mosquitoes. In the late 1990s, El Nino and La Nina were associated with malaria and dengue outbreaks.

As a result of rising temperatures, malaria now also threatens areas previously untouched by cold temperatures, such as the highlands of Irian Jaya (2013 m. above sea level) in 1997 (Climate Hotmap). Research has also confirmed the relationship between increasing temperatures and dengue virus mutations. This means that existing dengue cases become more difficult to handle and cause more fatalities.

Other health problems may also be exacerbated by climate change. For example, humans with reduced heart function may be more vulnerable in hot weather because they require more energy to cool their bodies. Hot temperatures can also trigger respiratory problems. The concentration of ozone at ground level will increase due to warming temperatures. This will cause damage to human lung tissue.

Also read articles that may be related: "Greenhouse Effect" Definition & (Causes - Impact - How to Overcome)

Impact of Climate Change

The following are some of the impacts of climate change, consisting of:

  1. Ecosystem

  • It is possible that 20-30 percent of plant and animal species will become extinct if the global average temperature increases by 1.5-2.5 degrees Celsius.
  • The increase in CO2 in the atmosphere will increase the level of ocean acidity. This has a negative impact on marine organisms such as coral reefs and the species whose lives depend on these organisms.
  1. Food and forest products

  • It is estimated that agricultural productivity in tropical areas will decline if the global average temperature increases by between 1-2 degrees Celsius, thereby increasing the risk of famine.
  • The increasing frequency of droughts and floods will have a negative impact on local production, especially on food supplies in the subtropics and tropics.
  1. Coastal and lowland

  • Coastal areas will become increasingly vulnerable to coastal erosion and rising sea levels. Coastal damage will be exacerbated by human pressure on coastal areas.
  • It is estimated that by 2080, millions of people will be affected by flooding every year due to rising sea levels. The greatest risk is densely populated lowlands with low levels of adaptation. The populations most threatened are those in the deltas of Asia and Africa, but the most vulnerable are residents on small islands.
  1. Freshwater Resources and Management

  • Average river water flow and water availability in subpolar regions and wet tropical regions is expected to increase by 10-40 percent.
  • Meanwhile, in dry subtropical and tropical areas, water will decrease by 10-30 percent, so that conditions in areas which currently frequently experience drought will become even worse.
  1. Industry, settlements and society

  • The most vulnerable industries, settlements and communities are generally located in coastal areas and riverbanks, as well as those whose economies are closely linked to resources that are sensitive to climate, as well as those who live in areas frequently hit by extreme disasters, where urbanization is taking place rapidly fast.
  • Poor communities are particularly vulnerable due to their limited adaptive capacity, as well as their livelihoods highly dependent on resources that are easily affected by climate such as water supplies and food.
  1. Health

  • Populations with low adaptive capacity will be increasingly vulnerable to diarrhea, poor nutrition, and changes in the distribution patterns of diseases transmitted through various insects and animals.
  • Although GHG emission levels continue to increase, there are many opportunities to reduce them. One way is through changing lifestyle and consumption patterns. The IPCC provides policy recommendations and instruments that are considered effective in reducing GHG emissions, such as:

Energy Sector

  1. Reducing fossil fuel subsidies.
  2. Carbon tax on fossil fuels.
  3. Obligation to use renewable energy.
  4. Determining electricity prices for renewable energy.
  5. Subsidies for producers

Transportation Sector

  • Fuel economy obligations, use of biofuels and CO2 standards for road transport.
  • Unstuck plebeian endbrain taxes, vehicle registration, fuel and road and parking fees.
  • Designing transportation needs through land use regulations and infrastructure planning.
  • Investing in public transportation facilities and non-motorized transportation.

Building Sector

  1. Applying standards and labeling to various equipment.
  2. Building certification and regulations
  3. Demand side management programs.
  4. Pilots by government circles include procurement.
  5. Incentives for energy services companies.

Industrial Sector

  • Standard manufacturing
  • Subsidies, taxes for credit.
  • Permits that can be traded
  • Voluntary agreement.

Agricultural sector

  • Financial incentives and regulations to improve land management, maintain carbon content in the soil, use fertilizer and efficient irrigation.

Forestry sector

  1. Financial incentives (national and international) to expand forest areas, reduce deforestation, maintain forests, and forest management.
  2. Land use regulations and enforcement of these regulations.

Waste management sector

  • Financial incentives for better waste and liquid waste management.
  • Incentives or obligations to use renewable energy.
  • Waste management regulations.

Apart from that, we as a society can make efforts to reduce emissions such as:

  1. Use lighting efficiently and effectively. Use energy-saving lamps and a proper home lighting schedule
  2. Use electronic equipment, such as computers, TV, radio and air conditioning, only as needed.
  3. Reduce the use of private motorized vehicles.
  4. Maximize the use of public transportation and if you have to use a private vehicle, try to share it with those who have the same goal.
  5. Walk or use non-motorized transportation for short distances.
  6. If you must have a private vehicle, choose one that uses more fuel efficiently with a cleaner type of fuel.
  7. Foresight in choosing products is a big help in controlling GHG emissions. Overall, local products will provide smaller GHG emissions than imported products. Because imported products will emit GHGs in the transportation process from the country of origin to the country of destination.
  8. Don't forget, plant trees around the area where you live. Apart from being useful for refreshing the surrounding air, trees also function to absorb GHG emissions.

Climate change is clearly making human life miserable. Material losses and also loss of life are consequences that we must accept. Therefore, it is time for us, government, industry and society, to work together to prevent climate change.

Differences between Weather and Climate


  1. Anna Lia-chan. February 24, 2011. http://rubynamie.blogspot.com/2011/02/musim-di-dunia.html Central Bureau of Statistics .1992. Indonesian Statistics. Jakarta: BPS.
  2. Central Bureau. 1994. Indonesian Environmental Statistics. Jakarta: BPS. Central Bureau. 1995. Indonesian Environmental Statistics. Jakarta: BPS.
  3. Hartono. 2007. Geography of Earth Exploration and the Universe. Bandung: Citra Raya http://www.masbied.com/2010/06/03/cuaca-dan-iklim/#more-2955
  4. Sani. October 15, 2006. http://bumiindonesia.wordpress.com/2006/10/15/iklim-cuaca-dan- the change/
  5. May 28, 2010. http://idedunia.blogspot.com/2010/05/klasifikasi-iklim.html

That's the discussion about Weather and Climate Elements – Definition, Process, Classification, Change, Impact & Differences Hopefully this review can increase your insight and knowledge, thank you very much for visiting.

insta story viewer